By Muriel Tomlinson

ISBN-10: 0080156592

ISBN-13: 9780080156590

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9) which combines with a proton and then with another electron to form an ion. The above reagents do not normally attack benzene because there is very little resonance stabilisation of the anionradical (9) to help to overcome the stability of the benzene nucleus. Solutions of alkali metals in liquid ammonia behave essentially as solutions of sodium atoms in equilibrium with sodium ions and solvated electrons Na <± Na+ + ® and if a source of protons, such as an alcohol,t is also present very powerful reducing conditions are obtained.

BADDELEY (1954) Modern aspects of the Friedel and Crafts reaction, Quart. Rev. vra, 355. BADGER (1954) The Structures and Reactions of Aromatic Compounds. P. BERLINER (1945) The Friedel and Crafts reaction with aliphatic dibasic acid anhydrides, Org. Reactions, vol. V, 229. BERLINER (1964) Electrophilic substitution reactions, Progress in Physical Organic Chemistry, vol. II, Interscience. DE LA MARE andRiDD (1959) Aromatic Substitution, Nitration and Halogenation. Butterworths. GiLLESPiE and MILLEN (1948) Aromatic nitration, Quart.

PRICE (1946) Alkylation of aromatic compounds by the Friedel-Crafts method, Org. Reac. ΙΠ, 1. Richters Organic Chemistry, vol. Ill, Mee. C. Lectures. C—C 52 INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF BENZENOID COMPOUNDS ROBINSON (1934) Substitution in the benzene nucleus, /. Soc. Dyers Colourists, 65. RODD, Chemistry of Carbon Compounds, vol. Ill A and B. STIRLING (1965) Radicals in Organic Chemistry, Oldbourne Press, chap. 3. STOCK and BROWN (1963) Quantitative treatment of directive effects in aromatic substitution, Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry, vol.

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