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Note the distinction between cyclic sea salts and salts liberated from rocks by weathering (see text). Many similar diagrams could be drawn for other elements and ions (modified from MacIntyre, 1970). PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF THE OCEANS 49 twigs and then further inshore like the sizzle of frying fat. Amongst fish, croakers and drum fish produce noises like banging on a hollow log in cycles of 4-7 blows. Other biological noises can sound like a cacophony of clicks, squeaks, honks, groans, barks and whistles, obviously produced by a very wide range of species.

High salinity and low temperature increase the density of water, and low salinity and high temperature decrease it. The salinity and temperature differences need only be very small to produce the density differences which will separate the currents. Normal sea water contains 35 parts per thousand of salt (%0), that is 35 gil. 75%0. 0°C. 10). The position of each is clearly marked by different salinities, by different temperatures, and by different planktonic species. The vertical circulation of water in the Antarctic is part of the more general global picture of deep-water circulation, which is now described.

Tides fall into this category. 5 ( > 50%). This means that a short wave is defined as one in which the wavelength is less than twice the water depth. Most waves at the sea surface obviously fall into this latter category. 5. Allen (1985) gives a good account of the mathematics. The wave velocity (phase velocity) at the sea surface, C, and the resultant surface water velocity in the direction of the wave, U, are related to the wave's amplitude and wavelength and to water depth. However the relationships are different for long and short waves.

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