By R. S. Cahn M.A., Dr. Phil. nat., F.R.I.C. (auth.)
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Chemical Nomenclature
A functional group is a group of atoms defining the "function" or mode of activity of a compound. An alcohol owes its alcoholic properties to the functional group -OH; here the functional group, hydroxyl, is the same as the chemical group of the same name. A ketone owes its ketonic properties to the oxygen atom which is doubly bound (to carbon); the ketonic function is 0=(0) (without the carbon), and this is not the same as the ketonic group 0 = c(. Similarly the carboxylic function is 0~ 0~ /(C); /0HO HO is the 40 carboxyl group.
Nevertheless, that would be wrong. ; then, from those present, the "senior", so-called "principal" group is found by means of the list on p. 50. That group, and that alone, is written as suffix, the others become prefixes. The principal group sets the whole pattern of nomenclature and numbering, and it is vital to fix that group before anything else is done. Two simple examples show this: C10H7·C6H4·C02H is a naphthylbenzoic acid and not a carboxyphenylnaphthalene, whereas Ph·C10H6·C02H is a phenylnaphthoic acid; NH 2·CH 2·CH2•0H is 2-aminoethanol, and not 2-hydroxyethylamine (because OH is senior to NH2).
The last three names show that 7t-bonding is no bar to the use of the co-ordination nomenclature. L-acetatotetraberyllium (where the inferior 4 indicates that the oxygen bridges four atoms) Extended structures are indicated by catena: [CsJn[. . CuClrCl-CuCl2-Cl-CuClrCl .. L-Chlorodichlorocuprate(rr) lsopolyanions Numerical prefixes suffice, at least for simple cases: K2S207 potassium disulphate CasMo7024 tricalcium heptamolybdate 29 INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE Heteropolyanions Co-ordination principles are applied for naming the polyanion.
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