By Jens Leth Hougaard

ISBN-10: 3642018270

ISBN-13: 9783642018275

This publication makes a speciality of reading expense and surplus sharing difficulties in a scientific style. It bargains an in-depth research of assorted sorts of principles for allocating a typical financial worth (cost) among participants of a bunch or community – e.g. participants, corporations or items. the consequences might help readers overview the professionals and cons of many of the tools curious about phrases of assorted components resembling equity, consistency, balance, monotonicity and manipulability. As such, the booklet represents an up to date survey of price and surplus sharing tools for researchers, scholars and practitioners alike. The textual content is followed via useful situations and various examples to make the theoretical effects simply accessible.

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By self-duality ϕ(q, ˆ Q/2) = q/2, and by resource monotonicity ϕ(q, ˆ E) ≤ q/2 for 0 ≤ E ≤ Q/2. 1 the unique maximizer of LD on the set of order-preserving ˆ E) = ϕCEG (q/2, E) = ϕT (q, E) for rationing rules is ϕCEG . Hence, ϕ(q, 0 ≤ E ≤ Q/2. 1 and the definition of the Talmud rule ˆ E) LD ϕ(q, E), for 0 ≤ E ≤ Q/2. that ϕT is self-dual and satisfies ϕ(q, In other words, the Talmud rule is the unique order-preserving, resource monotonic and self-dual rule that maximises equality in gains or losses depending on E being smaller than or larger than half the total demand.

As mentioned above, there is another way to manipulate the resulting shares and that is by reallocating demand between groups of agents keeping the number of agents fixed. If such manipulation shall be prevented no coalition of agents shall be able to increase their total share by reshuffling their individual demands – that is, the rationing rule ϕ must satisfy: • No Advantageous Reallocation: Let E be given. Then for every S ⊂ N and q, q ∈ Rn+ , if i∈S qi = i∈S qi and qj = qj for all j ∈ N \ S, it implies that i∈S ϕi (q, E) = i∈S ϕi (q , E).

Qn 1 ⎤ ⎤⎡ 0 ... 0 qn ⎥ ⎢ 0 ... 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ qn−1 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ n − 2 . . 0 ⎥ ⎢ qn−2 ⎥ ⎥. ⎥ ⎢. .. ⎥ . ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ . . q1 1 ... 1 Since demands are increasingly ordered we get that, r1 ≤ . . ≤ rn = Q = sn ≤ . . ≤ s1 . Now, define the Increasing resp. 3 Cost Sharing with Joint Cost Function 43 Increasing Serial Cost Sharing φIS is defined by cost shares i xIS i = k=1 C(rk ) − C(rk−1 ) , i = 1, . . 14) where r0 = 0 by definition. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing φDS is defined by cost shares j xDS n−j+1 = k=1 C(sk ) − C(sk−1 ) , j = 1, .

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