By Walter L. Hixson (auth.)

ISBN-10: 113737425X

ISBN-13: 9781137374257

Over the process 3 centuries, American settlers helped to create the richest, strongest country in human background, whilst they killed and displaced hundreds of thousands. This groundbreaking paintings exhibits that American heritage is outlined via settler colonialism, supplying a compelling framework by which to appreciate its upward thrust to international dominance.

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Indigenous people operated on the basis of reciprocal relationships with the natural, human, and spiritual worlds. Just as they would kill animals or exploit nature to eat and to live, indigenous culture allowed for violence against other people. Indigenes viewed war as a natural activity to promote manhood and keep the community strong and secure. Indian culture demanded “blood revenge” for attacks against family or community. Once revenge had been taken, the conflict could end. Violence in such cases was reciprocal and proportionate rather than indiscriminate and total.

Indians took into their societies captives—both Indian and European—to replace those who had been lost to war or disease (thus to “cover the dead”). Especially as their populations became ravaged by diseases to which they lacked immunities, many North American Indian tribes employed war and captive-taking to rebuild their numbers. At other times, however, Indians took captives, mainly women and children, to exploit them for sex, labor, trade, and as “PEOPLE FROM THE UNKNOWN WORLD” 25 tools of diplomacy.

41 In a struggle pitting the forces of good against evil in the form of the devil’s indigenous minions, no amount of indiscriminate killing would be considered too great. “Sometimes,” Captain John Underhill rationalized, perhaps to assuage feelings of traumatic guilt within the settler community, “the scripture declareth that women and children must perish with their parents . . ”42 Ambivalent relations encompassing trade and acculturation resumed in New England after the Pequot War. More intensely than the Virginians some of the deeply devout Puritans strove to lead indigenous people to Christian salvation.

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