By Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development
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Additional info for African Economic Outlook, 2003 2004
Strengthening institutions is also a much slower process than building a pipeline. They remain rudimentary and training, justice and democratic institutions are not seen as a priority. 6 per cent of the world’s oil. Africa is thus paradoxically a major importer of oil products (39 per cent of its total energy imports, compared with the world average of 19 per cent), which is a very heavy macroeconomic (budget and current account) burden. Worldwide demand for natural gas is growing fast because it is relatively clean.
And J. W. and J. Besant–Jones (2002), Global Electric Power Reform, Privatisation and Liberalization of the Electric Power Industry in Developing countries, World Bank Group, Washington, DC. 23. See Karekezi and Kimani (2002), op. cit. African Economic Outlook © AfDB/OECD 2004 Overview Figure 14 - Pathway to Electricity Sector Reform Starting point of reforms Complete integration/Complete public ownership Setting up of the Energy regulatory framework (new/amendment of the Electricity Act), establishment of an Independent Regulatory Body Vertical unbundling Horizontal unbundling Vertically integrated utility National utility Unbundled generation, common transmission and distribution Unbundled distribution, common generation and transmission Provincial distribution companies, national generation and transmission Unbundled generation and transmission Provincial distribution and generation, national transmission Complete vertical unbundling Complete horizontal unbundling Complete public ownership R E S T R U C T U R A T I O N P R I V A T I S A T I O N Corporatisation Commercialisation Contract management/Management performance contract Liberalisation, IPPs – Privatisation of generation Privatisation of generation and distribution Privatisation of Generation, Transmission and Distribution Complete private ownership Source: Based on Karakezi and Mutiso (2000), Power Sector Reform in Sub Saharan Africa.
It was also delayed owing to problems raising money for its completion, stemming partly from criticism of its social consequences (displaced population), effects on health (infection of the river with bilharzias) and environmental damage (disturbing the river’s annual cycle, as well as deforestation). The obstacles were only removed in 1997 when the World Bank (the International Development Agency) finally agreed to help fund it. 1 per cent). 6 per of world production in 2001, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA).
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