By Peter W. Hawkes

ISBN-10: 0128048158

ISBN-13: 9780128048153

The 2 chapters that fill this quantity describe instruments for learning the brightness of electron beams and for analysing the homes of mass spectrometers.

First, L.D. Duffy and A.J. Dragt introduce the idea that of eigen-emittance. 3 kinematic invariants are linked to charged-particle beams, in linear shipping mode. those invariants are often called eigen-emittances and a examine in their houses makes it attainable to tailor the beam to slot the appliance in query. the idea relies at the idea of sym-plectic beam delivery, a subject matter on which A.J. Dragt has already contributed to those Advances (Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics, sixty seven, 1986, 65—120, with E. Forest). The authors first recapitulate the elemental concept prior to explaining how the emittance may be tailored as required. the rest of the bankruptcy, which shape a quick treatise at the topic, provides numerous applications.

In the second one bankruptcy, I. Spivak-Lavrov describes at size methods of analysing the homes of either static and time-of-flight mass spectrometers and of devising new designs. The optics of those tools is determined out intimately, in an try to make the item self-contained. a lot Russian paintings is pointed out, frequently from journals that aren't on hand in English translation and at times, aren't greatly on hand outdoor their nations of starting place.

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Section 4 is devoted to the calculation of instrument characteristics of static and TOF mass analyzers. Here, the results obtained in the previous sections are used to analyze the behavior of beams of charged particles in COS, and the Monte Carlo method is also applied. By means of a random number generator, the entry conditions for a large number of particles emerging from an ionic source are simulated. At that point, distribution of ions in the source according to coordinates, emergence angles, energy, and mass is taken into account.

The magnetic flux theorem). , 1995). , Glikman and Spivak-Lavrov, 1990), the magnetic flux theorem was proved for any form of an axial trajectory and a combined electric and magnetic field. ) In Baisanov et al. (2006, 2008b, 2011b), the idea of expanding a beam before it enters a magnet due to the refraction in the prismatic electric field was proposed. Unlike the field of quadrupole lenses, such a field not only expands the beam before it enters a magnet, it also allows energy focusing to occur.

Glikman and Spivak-Lavrov, 1990), the magnetic flux theorem was proved for any form of an axial trajectory and a combined electric and magnetic field. ) In Baisanov et al. (2006, 2008b, 2011b), the idea of expanding a beam before it enters a magnet due to the refraction in the prismatic electric field was proposed. Unlike the field of quadrupole lenses, such a field not only expands the beam before it enters a magnet, it also allows energy focusing to occur. , 2011b). The CSAP scheme projected to the mean plane (the horizontal direction) is presented in Figure 1.

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