By Claude Hagége
This pioneering research is predicated on an research of over two hundred languages, together with African, Amerindian, Australian, Austronesian, Indo-European and Eurasian (Altaic, Caucasian, Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Dravidian, Uralic), Papuan, and Sino-Tibetan. Adpositions are a nearly common a part of speech. English has prepositions; a few languages, corresponding to eastern, have postpositions; others have either; and but others forms that aren't relatively both. As grammatical instruments they mark the connection among components of a sentence: generally one aspect governs a noun or noun-like be aware or word whereas the opposite services as a predicate. From the syntactic perspective, the supplement of an adposition is dependent upon a head: during this final sentence, for instance, a head is the supplement of on whereas on a head is determined by relies and on is the marker of this dependency. Adpositions lie on the center of the grammar of so much languages, their usefulness making them recurrent in daily speech and writing. Claude Hagege examines their morphological positive aspects, syntactic capabilities, and semantic and cognitive houses. He does so for the subsets either one of adpositions that categorical the family of agent, sufferer, and beneficiary, and of these which mark house, time, accompaniment, or software. Adpositions frequently govern case and are often steadily grammaticalized into case. the writer considers the complete set of functionality markers, together with case, that seem as adpositions and, in doing so, throws gentle on approaches of morphological and syntactic switch in several languages and language households. His e-book may be welcomed through typologists and by way of syntacticians and morphologists of all theoretical stripes.
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Extra resources for Adpositions
These Pos must be doubled. In this respect, they behave like case affixes, in noun-phrases containing a demonstrative (the only nounphrase constituent to agree in case and number with nouns), as seen in (30a), to be compared with case affix doubling in (30b); however, an important difference is that two Hungarian Pos like mogottmay be coordinated, whereas this is impossible for Hungarian case affixes. Moreover, in old Russian, Pr doubling may occur, but only in postnominal position, with attributive adjectives as well as with appositive nouns, as shown by (31a) and (31b) A comprehensive characterization of adpositions iy respectively; the same happens for possessive adjectives in Russian folktales, and even in oral conversation to mark emphasis, as shown by (31c) and (3rd): (30) (Ugric, Finno-Ugric,Uralic, Hungary) (Plank 1995k 63) a.
Case prefixes are less common than case suffixes. They are, however, attested in quite a few languages. ) (Aramaic, Iraq); • one Kordofanian: Krongo (Kadugli, Sudan); 22 Ad positions » ten Niger-Congo—one Cross-River: Kana (Nigeria), and ten Bantoid: Hunde (Democratic Republic of Congo), Lucazi (Angola), Luvale (Angola), Ndebele (South-Africa), Ndonga (Namibia, Angola), Noni (Cameroon), Talinga (Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo), Tonga (Zambia), Xhosa (South Africa, Zimbabwe), and Zulu (South Africa); • one Nilo-Saharan: Ateso (Nilotic); • two Oto-Manguean: Ocuilteco (Otomian, Mexico) and Mitla Zapotec (Zapotecan, Mexico); • one Tequistlatecan: Chontal de Oaxaca (Mexico); • one Totonacan: Tepehua (Mexico); • three Salishan—one Central Salish: Squamish (Canada), and two Interior Salish: Kalispel (United States), and Shuswap (Canada); • one Penutian: Takelma (United States); • five Austronesian—two Western Malayo-Polynesian, both Sundic: Enggano (Indonesia), and Nias Selatan (Indonesia), and three Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, all of them Oceanic: Gagapaiwa (Papua New Guinea), Mwotlap (Vanuatu), and Sakao (Vanuatu); • two Mon-Khmer—one Bahnaric: Cua (Vietnam), and one Aslian: Temiar (Malaysia); • two Burarran: Burarra and Gurr-goni (Australia); • one Maran: Mara (Australia); • one West Papuan: Maybrat (North-Central Bird's Head, Indonesia).
V odn-boYs-dom-e c. INESS work 'to work in an old and big house' (29) (isolate, France) etxe zahar eta handi bat-a-n house old and big one-ART-INESS 'in an old and big house' JAPANESE SOULETIN BASQUE However, the ban on Adp doubling is not universal. Certain Hungarian Pos do not govern a case-affix-marked noun (cf. 4). They belong to the f'ôlôtt "above" or môgôtt "behind" type (which, unlike kiviil "outside of", can be inflected for person and is always contiguous, and never preposed, to the governed term).
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