By Andrey Yury Filchenko

A reference grammar of the endangered indigenous japanese Khanty dialects of Vasyugan and Alexandrovo of the Uralic language family members has been constructed. The learn bases at the corpus of traditional narrative discourse, and is decided in a basic cognitive-functional, usage-based version of language. the outline addresses the most styles of the jap Khanty language approach and gives a few typological contextualization of the reviewed language facts. the outline covers the problems in phonology, word-classes, morphology, syntax and semantics of easy and intricate clauses. within the zone of phonology, such systematic beneficial properties as strong backness vowel concord and consonant-vowel concord are analyzed within the articulatory gesture framework. Morphologically, the method is agglutinating with suffixation dominant in derivation and inflection. Syntactically, jap Khanty styles as a standard SOV language. Occasional non-prototypical positive factors comprise non-canonical argument marking alongside ergative trend opposed to the overall heritage of Nom-Acc process of GR association. In mapping of the pragmatic functions---to semantic roles---to grammatical kin, japanese Khanty indicates robust choice in the direction of Topic-initiality, quite often mapped onto Agent semantic position. This choice is still dominant in detransitivisation operations, the place the prototypical mapping is altered in the direction of Topic-Target-S that typically has to do with the parenthetical demotion of pragmatic prestige of the Agent referent and advertising of the non-Agent. research of japanese Khanty advanced clauses finds strong use of finite and non-finite (participial, infinitival and converbial) structures as relative, adverbial and supplement clauses in typologically universal techniques of clause-linking. conventional discrete differentiation into subordinate and coordinate kinds in keeping with morphosyntactic standards seems to be insufficient, divorced from the structural variety of the saw advanced clauses. Cognitive-functional strategy is used as a substitute, implying a common method of construal of associated occasions, attractive to cognitive family among states-of-affairs, instead of specific structural potential. This leads to a continuum of combinable beneficial properties finding every one clause relating to both the subordinate or coordinate prototypes. Clause-linkage ideas are with regards to the pragmatic differentiation of data in utterances, with pragmatics, details structuring elements being on the center of the excellence among the subordination and coordination.

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21c) or even take complements themselves, though only when the adverb occurs in a right branch (cf. (21b) and the discussion in chapter 1; see also Bowers 1993). Moreover, they have comparative forms, as shown in (21d). Furthermore, they ANTISYMMETRY AND THE MINIMALIST PROGRAM 37 cannot possibly be argued to form a complex predicate with the verb as proposed in Williams and di Sciullo (1987), Williams (1994), Iatridou (1990), since verb-movement always leaves the adverb behind and various adverbs can intervene (cf.

George read probably the book d. George read the book, probably In the above examples bending and adjunction take place which, according to Âfarli, derive the various adverbial orderings. It is assumed that the adverbial phrase is attached to the upper functional projection of the clause. Moreover, Âfarli argues that so-called object and subject shift phenomena, as the ones discussed in Jonas & Bobaljik (1993) can be re-interpreted as involving adverbial shift and obligatory movement of the subject and the object to AgrSP and AgrOP, respectively.

Cardinaletti & Starke (1995), building on Holmberg (1986) among others, and initially examining clitic and weak type pronouns as the ones in (33), propose a general theory that is expected to hold for all grammatical elements, and which is not to be limited just to pronouns (actually the authors themselves extend their typology to adverbs). (33) a. Non gli dirò mai *gli b. Non *lor o dirò mai loro c. will never say tutto tutto tutto everything' *gli *loro a lui They introduce a distinction between clitic elements like gli, strong ones (a lui), and weak ones (loro) which have a set of distinctive and well defined properties.

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