By Barbara Ann Kipfer
This all-new consultant to english is designed to be user-friendly. Its cutting edge A-to-Z dictionary structure enables you to locate the solutions for your questions about grammar, punctuation, and most well-liked utilization fast and easily. Simply search for the matter components as you'll search for a observe within the dictionary. It's simply that straightforward and time-saving.
A word list of phrases and ample cross-references supply much more support for those who want it. Created by means of a number one professional in linguistics and lexicography. Covers all crucial components of grammar and style. A key notice index for quick entry. transparent, considerable examples.
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Extra resources for 21st Century Grammar Handbook
3 For some other relevant work on gerunds in English and in other languages see also Baker 1985, Battistella 1983, Borer 1990, Borgonovo 1994, Chierchia 1982, 1984, Kaiser 1999, Munn 1991, Ross 1972, Yoon 1996. THE MINIMALIST SYNTAX OF CLAUSAL GERUNDS 17 tions. Additionally, it discusses briefly the connection of the phenomena analyzed here to possible cross-linguistic counterparts. Section 2 discusses the structure of CGs, analyzed here as projecting a TP/IP. This sections discusses the way in which CGs can be distinct from poss-ing constructions (V-ing constructions whose subject is marked with genitive Case), from regular DPs and from finite clauses.
Crucially, different from CGs, TP-defective gerunds only allow a [–tense] interpretation (26a-b) (see Stowell 1982, who first discusses the existence of a [–tense] type to check/value the wh-feature of the partially moved wh-phrase). Crucially, the view that structure can be projected as needed for convergence would overgenerate different constructions. THE MINIMALIST SYNTAX OF CLAUSAL GERUNDS 29 of gerund). 25 This is shown by the fact that TP-defective gerunds cannot have a tense specification distinct from the matrix clause (26a-b), as shown by the ungrammatical use with these gerunds of time adverbials indicating a distinct time from the matrix clause (the examples are otherwise grammatical without the temporal adverbials), different for example from certain infinitives (27).
The tests in this section are illustrated with the distinction between CGs and poss-ing, but DPs and poss-ing pattern together regarding these tests, and differently from CGs. 6 I return in section 5 to the CGs that may license a nominative subject. 7 Regarding (9), in many recent approaches it has been assumed that the functional element Tense (T) needs to have its specifier position (Spec, TP) filled by a lexical item (the Extended Projection Principle/EPP). g. Chomsky 1995a, 2000, 2001 and references therein) attribute this requirement to the presence of a feature (EPP-feature) in T, which needs to be satisfied by an element in Spec, TP.
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